System-on-chip architecture for autonomous driving systems in electric vehicles

English inventor Thomas Parker introduced the first production electric car in 1884. Slower speeds and shorter ranges limited the electric cars of this era. From the beginning to the middle of the 20e century, gasoline-powered cars were cheaper to operate, able to travel farther and faster than their electric counterparts, and quickly gained the upper hand. Since the early 2000s, You’re here was a pioneer in reviving the electric car by producing the world’s most visible modern fully electric vehicles (EVs) on the road. They transformed the auto industry by building the first modern software-based EV platform wrapped in a slippery aero design. Today, established automakers and tech-driven electric vehicle startups are competing fiercely for market and share of mind.

Electric vehicles, by their very nature, require technological innovation. Electric car buyers not only expect a product that can travel long distances, it must also look cooler, perform better, entertain more, be quieter, drive on its own, be affordable and more. sure ever. New electric car makers are technology companies that innovate to build cars. Automakers, or OEMs, are moving from more traditional Distributed Electronic Control Units (ECUs) to a more centralized domain architecture with central computing. Powerful electronics managed by complex software underpin almost all systems. The System on a Chip (SoC) is the most powerful electrical component in the car that manages all aspects of its domain while ensuring safe and secure operation. Several important trends have influenced its evolution.

The extension of vehicle autonomy is an important driver of the market. New electric motors and battery technology improve driveline efficiency and performance while reducing costs, size, weight and environmental footprint. Wire harnesses based on higher voltages require thinner, lighter wires. Shifting to a more centralized domain architecture means that the number of ECUs, boards and chips is reduced, saving weight and power consumption.

The second trend is over-the-air (OTA) updates in response to the software’s critical role in controlling virtually every aspect of vehicle operation. OTA updates reduce costs for OEM and owner and improve car functionality by adding autonomous driving capability, updating battery management to extend range, improving driving experience digital cockpit and correcting safety issues.

Finally, the industry is rapidly moving towards advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving with SAE L2 + / L3 systems on the road today and with L4 / L5 on the horizon. Advanced sensor technology for cameras, LIDAR, RADAR, ultrasound and more are needed to achieve higher levels of autonomous driving. Smaller sensors with significantly improved resolution and dynamic range reduce costs, power consumption and weight.

The complex sensor network powers areas such as central computing for ADAS and autonomous driving and the digital cockpit that controls the instrument panel, head-up display (HUD) and in-vehicle infotainment (IVI). An autonomous driving SoC is based on complex central computer hardware, which involves the use of more sophisticated software systems. There will be an increase in connectivity and the amount of data flowing around the vehicle. The increase in connectivity options brings new opportunities such as value-added services and OTA software updates, but introduces new cybersecurity risks. Protecting these new interfaces against unauthorized or malicious use is essential.

Figure 1 shows an abstraction of the main functional components of an autonomous driving and fusion processing SoC represented in the blue colored boxes. The sensors are used at the input of the SoC. The Environmental Perception and Objection Detection Subsystem uses high performance neural network accelerators for fast and accurate analysis of sensor data. High-precision mapping precisely locates the car in its surroundings. Finally, the trajectory and maneuver planning subsystem determines how the vehicle will react to the environment. Typically, two ASIL B SoCs are deployed to process sensor data simultaneously to achieve ASIL D compliance. Critical safety signals from each SoC are routed through the on-chip security manager. The Safety Manager uses ASIL D processors configured in Dual Core Lockdown Mode (DCLS) in conjunction with other safety mechanisms to detect random failures and correct or control them. The outputs of the security manager are used to manage the actuators of the vehicle. An on-chip security manager is deployed to protect against malicious attacks. A hardware root of trust forms a secure management system that functions as a secure runtime environment for secure boot, secure debugging, key management and cryptography, and secure boot loader management, including authentication. OTA deliveries before installation.

Fig. 1: Autonomous driving and SoC fusion processing.

Synopsis is ideally positioned for functional safety and security with software integrity solutions, a virtual ECU and hardware prototyping before software is available, automotive grade intellectual property, and a design-conscious verification and design solution. security certified ISO 26262 ASIL D.

Stewart william

(All posts)

Stewart Williams is Automotive Technical Marketing Director at Synopsys.

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